It is not immediately because the idea has taken root that globalisation requires
a global, cosmopolitan culture. Their are several variations on this theme. Some talk of
unification and cultural homogenisation of the world and criticise the process. Others
consider that globalisation will overcome local and historical identities, supercede some
ideologies, and produce an undifferentiated universal human culture. I believe that both
the quest for a new universal cultural to sweep away historical cultures is misguided,
while fear that “Americanisation” will wipe out historically-based cultural identities is
This vision of economic development and globalisation is really no more than an extension
of the two great rationalist movements providing the cultural and ideological foundations
of the contemporary world —Liberalism and Marxism. Both schools of thought are based
on a negation of historical, religious, and ethnic construction of identity, and stress new
ideals (the Citizen of the World or Soviet Man, respectively). Each of these models has
its own traits but they both coincide in considering any other distinction as artificial. I
emphasise this because at the moment this is the dominant ideology in our society and
in Europe as a whole. It is the rationalist approach, in both its Liberal and Marxist guises.
These ideologies consider identities as dangerous and, most likely, fundamentalist, whether
they be religiously, nationally, or ethnically based. I believe this is an extremely important
issue because it goes to the root of the problems of the modern world.
Manuel Castells
and identity
A comparative perspective
Globalisation and the strengthening of various cultural identities
(religious, national, ethnic, geographic, and gender, among
others) have occurred over the last fifteen years. In my view,
this is no coincidence but rather the product of a systemic
relationship between the two phenomena.
01 // 2 0 0 6
Let us now examine the reasons for the foregoing situation. In has been empirically
demonstrated that culturally constructed identities are fundamental to the way people
think about things. Evidence for this comes from various questionnaires administered in
universities over a longish period of time. The main source of this data comes from the
World Values Survey, the greatest impetus
for which has come from Prof. Inglehart of
the University of Michigan. For many
years, he has demonstrated both the
persistence and the transformation of
these identities. In this respect, one should
also take into account the data analysed
by Prof. Norris of Harvard University.
She used the data contained in the World
Values Survey that compared identities at
world, national, and regional levels, and
with Mankind’s cosmopolitan identities
in general. With regard to data taken from the beginning and the end of the 1990s,
Prof. Norris calculated that for the world as a whole, 13% of respondents primarily
considered themselves as “citizens of the world”, 38% put their Nation-State first, and the
remainder (i.e. the majority) put local or regional identities first. One should note that the
Basque Country and Catalonia appear in this database as regional identities. Moreover,
a breakdown of world geographical zones reveals that the area where local and regional
identities are strongest is Southern Europe (61%).
This reveals the need to begin with observations regarding the persistence of these
identities. Nevertheless, one has to begin with more than just the combination of
globalisation (i.e. processes producing power, wealth, and information on a worldwide
scale) and identities drawing on unique cultural and local traits. In recent times, these
two processes have led to a crisis in the Nation-State, which was invented as an
institutional tool for managing societies and their problems.
However, the world is facing problems that cannot be managed within the national
sphere. This creates a crisis of political representation in which the State fails to enshrine
multiple sources of identity (not least because we live in a multicultural world). It is worth
briefly looking at the trends before dealing with this complex issue in greater depth.
First, it is worth recalling that globalisation is not an ideology but rather an objective
process of structuring economy, societies, institutions, cultures, etc. One should also
remember that globalisation does not mean a set of undifferentiated processes. For
example, we speak of globalisation to refer to the kind of economy capable of operating in
real time at the everyday level. However, one should note here that not all economies can
be considered global in scope. The world economy operates in accordance with its central
“These two processes
have led to a crisis in
the Nation-State, which
was invented as an
institutional tool for
managing societies”
functions, which span capital and financial markets. These
financial markets are globally interdependent regardless of
whether they operate in true market economies or in
Capitalist ones. In both cases, capital is global in nature.
3.1. Economy, Science, Technology and Communication
At root, economy is global in nature. It is interdependent and
global when it comes to world trade, which increasingly plays
a decisive role in economies worldwide. It is also
global with regard to the production of goods and services.
However, while the economy’s core is global, the rest is not.
For example, most of the labour force is not global.
Multinational companies and their ancillary networks only
provide work for some two hundred million workers. This
may seem a great many but in fact it is only a drop in the
ocean compared with a world workforce of three thousand
million workers. However, these two hundred million
workers, employed in some fifty three thousand
multinationals, make up 40% of the world gdp and two thirds
of world trade. Therefore, what happens in this system of
production shapes economies as a whole.
Science and technology, the basis of wealth creation and
military power, and of States and countries, are global in
scope and are articulated on a worldwide scale. Science and
technology networks operate globally and are based on local
nodes of varying size.
Communication is also basically global in nature. Financial
and technological control of communications also operates on
a world scale. Here, one should note that 50% of the world’s
audiovisual material and news is controlled by just seven
communication groups. However, this does not necessarily
mean that the culture of these media is a globalised one.
What can be seen is a process of globalisation with regard
to business and information management but with content
tailored to local tastes. For example, Murdoch produces
classic American series for us audiences, while Sky Channel
in the uk broadcasts British series. Sky Channel in India
broadcasts in Hindi for Northern India, and in Tamil in
Madras, using local characters. Broadcasts in Southern China
are in Cantonese, and the series are locally-based. By contrast,
broadcasts in Northern China are in Mandarin and series
employ different storylines. In other words, communication
strategies are global in business terms but are tailored to
specific cultures and identities for marketing reasons.
58/59 II Globalisation and identity A comparative perspective Manuel Castells
Collage Blau (Blue Collage), Antoni Tàpies (2005) paint, pencil and collage on cardboard 50,5 x 67 cm
3.2. Global public goods The concept of globalisation has gone hand in hand with
the development of a set of international institutions that are playing an increasingly
important role in dealing with world problems. The notion of global public goods
requiring worldwide management is one that continues to gain ground. The environment
is a case in point, despite the Bush Administration’s refusal to accept overwhelming expert
consensus on global warming. Human rights are also considered to be universal and fall
under the aegis of the International Criminal Court. Likewise, health also has a global
dimension, as shown by the aids
epidemic and sars (Severe Acute
Respiratory Syndrome), which
reveal that disease is catching and
that the wealthy have a vested
interest in the health of the poor.
The policies and workings of the
United Nations also indicate
that interdependence goes far
beyond bilateral relationships
between countries.
3.3. Infrastructure and causes Globalisation rests on a technological infrastructure.
However, this infrastructure is not the cause of globalisation, which is driven by economic
strategies, cultural developments and markets. Even so, it would not have happened
without the economic infrastructure. In other words, capital has always been global but
now thousands of millions of Euros can be shifted from one investment to another in a
matter of seconds. Today’s globalisation is quite different from that of yesteryear because
it is based on ict (Information and Communication Technology), which renders distances
between countries irrelevant.
Moreover, this globalisation is both inclusive and exclusive. It includes everything that
has monetary value and excludes everything else. Thus economic globalisation is selective
by nature. This is why national governments and companies try to position themselves
in the global network because exclusion from it means no growth, no economic
development, and no wealth creation. Failure to attract capital and technological
investment can make economic outcasts of whole countries or sectors of the population.
Accordingly, it is not so much a question of a “North-South” divide but rather of those
within the network opposing those outside it. Evidently, a much larger proportion of
people in the “North” belong to the network compared to those in the “South”. Even
so, there are groups of population in the South that belong to the network yet remain
isolated from their host societies.
This kind of exclusion has led to public opinion questioning the benefits of globalisation
in recent years. Great swathes of society have been left on the fringes by globalisation,
while its beneficiaries have reaped vast rewards. One cannot see globalisation in black
and white terms as either “good” or “bad”. It depends on one’s criteria, who is being
considered and the subject under consideration (for example, globalisation may be
beneficial in economic terms but harmful in environmental ones). In any case,
Nation-States are pushing ahead with globalisation in order to shape and benefit from
II Globalisation and identity A comparative perspective Manuel Castells
“This globalisation is both
inclusive and exclusive.
It includes everything that
has monetary value and
excludes everything else”
the process. It is simply untrue to say that multinationals are the only parties driving
globalisation. Nation-States have taken an active role by de-regulating and furnishing
the technological infrastructure supporting globalisation. Put another way, globalisation
of capital and international trade does not just depend on technology or on corporate
strategy. It also depends on Nation-States de-regulating activities, privatising, and doing
away with frontier controls —which is precisely what they have done.
3.4. The crisis in political representation Nation-States have been the main agents of
liberalisation and globalisation. In carrying through these changes they have distanced
themselves from their voters and lost political legitimacy. A prime example of this is the
European Union, which has organised its affairs to have a greater say in the world. In this
context, it is worth noting that not even the us is in a position to control world financial
markets, investments, and corporate strategies. First, the eu has established what I would
call a “Networked State”. Here, political management is exercised through institutions
in which national governments work together, negotiating, and sharing sovereignty in
order to preserve some autonomy vis-à-vis the aforementioned global networks. Second,
a superstructure of international institutions (nato, who) and treaties (Kyoto) has been
established. Third, the issue of Nation-States’ waning political legitimacy has been
addressed by decentralising powers to the regions and even to ngos – a trend that is
particularly marked in the eu. Thus the Nation-State no longer performs its traditional
role but rather merely acts as a node within a super-national network. In such a network,
political decisions are negotiated. Thus, while Nation-States have not vanished in the
globalisation process, they have to cede sovereignty to survive. Moreover, in so doing they
move one step further away from their electorates. Their citizens not only have to accept
that the Nation-State is run on different lines from their own regions but also that the
way the State is run has changed a great deal. This makes political representation much
more distant. Here, it is worth recalling a slogan of what is wrongly-labelled the “antiglobalisation
movement”. The slogan was “No globalisation without representation” and
was heard for the first time at the wto in Seattle. It echoed the one used in The American
War of Independence (“No taxation without representation”). Although the slogan might
be considered slightly inaccurate (the wto does not represent multinationals but States,
some of which have democratically-elected governments), the sentiment behind it is
This kind of reaction points to a loss in popular representation when it comes to political
decisions regarding world economic policy. On the one hand, radical movements argue
that ordinary citizens are powerless in this respect. Others argue that new political
mechanisms are required to properly represent citizens. What it boils down to is that
the emphasis on political management comes at the expense of legitimacy and popular
In the context of globalisation, this reaction by States and the gap opening up between
the State and its representatives is driving efforts by growing numbers of people to
establish their collective identities. This is because they feel alienated from a State that no
longer represents them or helps them build meaning in their lives. They therefore
tend to build these identities on historical foundations.
Identity is way of constructing meaning in people’s lives at a time when the raison d’être
of modern States seems to be vanishing. In this respect, people crave much more than just
market economics. Indeed, the State can be said to be an agent of globalisation rather than of
the people. The reaction to this is an alternative construction of meaning based on identity.
At this juncture, it is worth recalling what we mean by identity, given that it is a word
that means different things to different people. In the Social Sciences, identity is the
process whereby people draw on a cultural attribute to build meaning in their lives.
People create a cultural construct in referring to something that lies beyond them as
individuals but which also defines them as such. However, one should note that such a
cultural construction may be purely individual, given that individuality is also a form of
identity. For example, one could express identity in the following terms: “I am the be-all
and end-all of existence”, or “I and my family are the be-all and end-all of existence”. This
is a kind of identity, although we generally consider identities to be based on historical
elements. Sociologists, social scientists, and anthropologists argue about whether identity
is constructed or not. I consider that identities are constructs and that all cultural
phenomena are the product of such construction.
What are such constructs built with? Evidently, I cannot awake one morning and
suddenly decide to be a Hutu. Becoming a Hutu is a much more complex affair. One
could draw on post-Modernist theories in which everything is possible and identities are
mere inventions. According to this approach, being a Muslim or being a Catalan, being a
woman or hailing from Manresa are simply part of the same process in which everything
is constructed.
While there is an element of truth in this, identity is built upon personal experience,
which in turn draws on a history, a culture, and has linguistic and geographic
components. Even so, one can ask how an identity is constructed, who constructs it, and
how it can be pinned down. The process of constructing identity is where the problems
begin and thus where one needs to hone one’s analysis.
4.1. Legitimising identity I distinguish three types of identities, which I have empirically
observed in groups. I have termed the first legitimising identity, which is constructed by
institutions in general and by the State in particular. Thus, taking French national identity
(which happens to be one of the strongest in Europe), it is the French State that has
constructed the French Nation, and not the reverse. At the time of the French Revolution,
less than 13% of the territories now forming France spoke the language of the Île de
France. Indeed, I would go further and say that France is the only example of a European
national identity that was effectively forged by the State. This was mainly achieved
through repression, as is the case of all State-constructed entities. However, repression was
also used elsewhere but to much less effect. The schools inspired by Jules Ferry during the
Third Republic were to prove decisive, constructing the petit citoyen français as a cultural
model. Unlike the French case, another revolutionary nation —the United States— built a
strong national identity without drawing on traditional components but instead, built one
based on the State, the Constitution, and multicultural and multi-ethnic elements.
62/63 II Globalisation and identity A comparative perspective Manuel Castells
4.2. Resistance-based identity The second type is the resistance-based identity. In this
case, groups who feel they are pushed to the fringes of society in cultural, political, or
social terms react by constructing an identity that allows them to resist assimilation
by the system that subordinates them. They do this by drawing on history and selfidentification.
For example, there is currently an extraordinary upsurge in Indian
movement throughout Latin America. This identity has lain dormant and it is only
recently that it has been strongly asserted. The reason for this lies in resistance to certain
kinds of globalisation that have pushed Indians to the fringes of society. Not all kinds
of globalisation provoke such resistance but some social groups take this path precisely
because they cannot resist as citizens, or because they are in a minority and cannot
exercise their political rights.
4.3. Project-based identity The third kind is project-based identity. This is based on selfidentification,
albeit drawing upon cultural, historical, and geographic components for
this purpose. Such a project may be of a national or a generic nature. For example, the
feminist or ecological movements reflects this kind of process.
These three kinds of identities differ greatly from one another and it would be a mistake
to think that one can slip easily between them. For example, it is unlikely that one
can jump from a resistance-based identity to a project-based one. If this were the case,
these identities would simply become one and the same. Legitimising identities involve
ideological manipulation. If the project for building a nation based on the State merely
serves the interests of the latter, it means that anyone who disgrees with what the
State does is automatically pushed to the fringes of society. Resistance-based identities
may (but do not necessarily) lead to extremism in the absence of bridge-building and
communication. If project-based identities are not fleshed out with historical materials,
they become purely subjective and hence unlikely to be adopted by society as a whole.
How can one empirically consider the developments seen over the last few years? Instead
of considering all possible cases, we confine ourselves to religious identity and to national
5.1. Religious identity Religious identity in Western Europe (and indeed Europe as a
whole) is relatively unimportant nowadays. Our studies of Catalonia reveal that less than
5% of the country’s population are regular church-goers. This does not mean that religion
is unimportant in Catalan culture, merely that it does not represent an element of identity
for the majority of Catalans. Many European intellectuals write off religious identity.
However, this attitude stems from ignorance, given that religious identity is of great
importance elsewhere in the world (not least in the us). This is also true of Arab countries
along the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean.
Religion provides an identity that is very different from one based on State legitimacy.
The former is based on the believer as a member of a community of faith. Talking
specifically about the Muslim world, the project of building an Arab State runs counter
to the principle of Uma, which is a community of believers which is not expressed in the
State. Indeed, the State is only legitimate insofar as it embraces Islam and represents the
interests of God on Earth. From this point of departure, interpretations may be more or
less fundamentalist. However, nationalism
is anathema to Uma. That is why when
Saddam Hussein seized power (aided and
abetted by the us and France), he gained
support for defending Iraq as a key Islam
country. When Hussein was toppled,
together with the extreme nationalists who
supported him, it was Islam —the bedrock
of Iraqi society— that filled the vacuum.
This particularly benefitted the Shiites but
Sunni Moslems agree on broadly the same
principles. Put baldly, Saddam Hussein
was the mortal enemy not only of the
Shiites but of Islam in general.
The construction of a religious identity
in the Muslim world has arisen from: the
failure of Nation-States to manage globalisation; the failure of Arab nationalism in the
long-running dispute over Israel and globalisation in general; the failures of Arab or other
kinds of nationalism in other parts of the Muslim world; and religious reconstruction
excluding the State. It is also possible that such reconstruction is not the fruit of a
project-based identity but rather represents the resistance of a community and thus tends
towards fundamentalism.
5.2. National identity National construction is the point of departure for the Nation-
State, usually based on the State as expression of the nation. In most cases, it is the State
that creates the nation rather than the other way round. There is currently a growing
separation between State and nation. This can be observed when one speaks of values
—national values differ from those of the State. The latter are instrumental and now
go beyond the Nation-State, being used to manage globalisation and its accompanying
networks. By contrast, national values are ones that affirm identity. Nations denied the
opportunity of forming their own States —Catalonia, Scotland, and Quebec— but also
strong States like France feel lost in an increasingly globalised world. They perceive a
loss of autonomy in State terms and see the influx of immigrants as an invasion that
is culturally alien. Last year, Europe experienced politics based on fear —whether of
globalisation or of invasion by hordes of foreigners. This expressed the idea of the
nation being betrayed by the State. As a result, there has been an upsurge in support for
extremist political movements, of which the Dutch and French far-right parties are good
The separation of nationalism and State takes various political forms. The idea of
rebuilding the State as an expression of the nation raises the issue of what the national
identity is. In the case of Spain, when President Aznar put forward the idea of the country
as an important nation in the world, he explicitly rejected the idea of a multicultural
II Globalisation and identity A comparative perspective Manuel Castells
“Such reconstruction
is not the fruit of a
project-based identity
but rather represents
the resistance of
a community and
thus tends towards
society. Aznar invoked the principle of Spain as a single culture and nation, despite the
fact that it is currently neither and both concepts run counter to the letter and spirit of
the Spanish Constitution. Such a project for reconstructing identity was made in the
nation’s name, even though it really served the State’s interests. The project is effectively
State-inspired nationalism rather than nationalism inspired by a nation. One should bear
the distinction in mind, not only with regard to Spain but also as a general principle
applicable elsewhere in the world.
Once the State loses its potency as a symbol of identity as a result of limited scope for
manoeuvre in a globalising world, it attempts to re-establish its legitimacy by appealing to
national sentiment. However, in many cases this nation has separated from the State and
no longer feels that it is represented by the latter.
Latin America is a dramatic case in point but there are others, such as States built upon
several nations (of which Spain is an example). Appealing to the Spanish nation as if it
were a single identity raises grave questions regarding the principles enshrined in the
Constitution – namely a State based on common consent and on its constituent nations.
Approaches such as that adopted by Aznar attempt the impossible, trying to reconcile the
State, national identity and globalisation.
The instrumental processes of power, global wealth, institutions, and the Nation-State no
longer represent the nation and identities built on local autonomy. This lies at the root of
the management crisis currently afflicting the world. Even the most powerful countries
are affected by this crisis, of which the post 9/11 United States is an example. Under
such circumstances, governments resort to the State’s raison d’être, namely the ability to
legitimise a monopoly of violence, as Weber put it. They resort to the threat of violence
and force in a world which, over the last ten years, has seen any number of experiments
in combinations of States, formulae for joint sovereignty and management, pluralist
identities, and a positively Byzantine relationship
between global public goods and the institutions of
Nation-States. This complexity however vanishes
when panic assails a country’s leaders and resort is
made to military might.
This is the politics of fear on a worldwide scale,
not just a national one. In structural terms, we
are moving towards a more complex, plural,
interdependent world. But powerful forces are at
work to impose their own will on the planet and
wreak profound changes. Here it is instructive to
recall the relationship between structure and
agency, in which the first creates the framework
within which problems arise but where
agency finally prevails.
The agent does not understand the structure. Bush has decided that despite globalisation
and cultural pluralism, he will take his own decisions regardless of the overall context
in which he operates. What Bush and other powerful leaders do is to create a different
trajectory. On the one hand, there is the Internet, globalisation, interdependence,
and cultural pluralism. On the other hand, there is censorship, military power and
technology, the unilateral use of which is capable of plunging the world into chaos as
economic, cultural and institutional structures are undermined by the misuse of political
The summit meeting in the Azores brought together the four great Western Christian
empires —or remains thereof— and conveyed a message of a much more dangerous,
complicated world. The leaders at that summit chose to simplify things and present a
model of civilisation that is so obviously superior to all others – their own. Given that
they have the power to impose this model, that is just what they decided to do. The basic
idea is that we can make the world more controllable by imposing our will on it. The
corollary is that the world will be made a better place because our civilisation is superior
to all others. Such is the logic of Empire and oil will be part of the spoils of conquest. This
should come as no great surprise —all imperial ventures need to be funded somehow.
Imperial thinking means considering our civilisation is right and justified in using might
to drag others out of their misery.
Current US political science is that of the “Bankrupt State”, in which governments that
are incapable of relating to citizens, of managing the planet, and of husbanding the
Earth’s natural resources. Recently, a small coterie of American Political Science experts
went so far as to propose a Commission run by Western countries to manage the world’s
dwindling natural resources for the benefit of all. The unpleasant truth is that this
civilising zeal is merely a mask for State realpolitik.
This legitimising identity is increasingly facing the resistance-based identities springing
up around the world. Even so, such resistance does not necessarily aspire to something
better since its raison d’être lies in oppposition. Project-based identities need to supplant
resistence-based identities (and in particular, national identities). Only thus can we hope
to chart a course between powerful establishments and fundamentalist commons II
66/67 II Globalisation and identity A comparative perspective Manuel Castells
Manuel Castells is emeritus professor of Sociology at the University of California at Berkeley, and senior
professor at the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Barcelona).

the wave

VERSION EN INGLES formato texto THE WAVE (DieWelle)
This is s research made by students from IES Santa Clara . Santander City. Cantabria. Spain

3. What Is The Wave?
a) Characteristics
b) Analysis of the characters
4.The Third Wave
a) Timeline of the experiment
b) Focus related to social psychology
5.Survey (autocracy as a form of government)
The Wave (Die Welle in German) is a German drama based on the experiment known as Third Wave conducted in April 1967. The film puts us in a normal high school situated in Germany today, which project in a week, the teacher who imparts the kind of autocracy will behind his students gradually become a kind of Legionnary. Following in his footsteps without questioning.
Trailer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azjctIF8xV4&feature=related File: P1140188.JPG-MCG-DallgowMarie Curie Institute Dallgow-Döberitz, where was filmed thefilm
2. Synopsis-
During a week of projects, the teacher Rainer Wenger teaches his students, the issue of autocracy form of government. During class, students are skeptical about the idea that could again be a new dictatorship in modern Germany. Gradually, Professor Wenger begins to impose a new form of being to their students through the motto: “ strength through discipline, strength by the community, forced through the action of force via” emphasizing pride in it, so that every day students follow a new rule. http://files.psicodisea.webnode.es/200000057-6d12b6e0e0/la-ola-3.jpg The teacher Rainer Wenger at the beginning of the week projects 2. Synopsis Interest in the way of how these classes grew executed, making young people from other classroom courses were changed to be a course large, leading to fanaticism. The group goes so far as to invent a greeting and a dress uniform. The popular course is decided called “The Wave”, and as the days passed, “The Wave” began to be noted by acts of vandalism, all behind the teacher Wenger, who has just lost control of the situation and thus also losing control of his own life. Preparing your greeting representative in one of his classes.
3. What is “ The Wave”? http://caminosquenollevanaroma.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/la-ola.jpg
The Wave is a German film drama based on the experiment of the third wave, that was an experiment to show that even in the free and open societies do not are immune to the lure of authoritarian and dictatorial ideologies. The film made in 2008 had a satisfactory success on the big screen all over Germany, after ten weeks on the bill, saw more than 2.3 million people, directed by Dennis Gansel.
3.1 Features of The Wave http://www.elespectador.com/files/images/febmar2010/85f4d1b88423eb81c34b46d2b9a15924.jpg
At the commencement of the teacher Wenger, most students are taking orders as a joke, many laughed. As the days passed, all began to behave like a unit. Wenger, became by request of the students in the movement’s leader. Although not approved, the vandalism committed by their students to paint the emblem of The Wave throughout the city. Wenger, also won the class, follow his orders without fault, all students got to sit in place in less than 30 seconds, all in a position of attention throughout the class.” The “ uniform-wearing all members consists of a simple whitet-shirt. That is the basic garment.
3.2 Analysis of the characters http://www.muenchenblogger.de/files/images/die-welle-09.preview.jpg Professor Rainer Wenger http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-czpZfUXmtzQ/Tzk_aQT_3JI/AAAAAAAABco/YVWNWFVG8AI/s400/la_ola+51.JPGKaro http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3249/3125623157_95f54633a6.jpg Tim http://www.persinsala.it/web/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/die_welle-marco.jpg
Framework for Rainer Wenger : It is admired by students for their teaching methodology. Not like follow the rules. He has a sense of leadership. He does not give importance to what people think of him. ‘I like to show that anything is possible if you put in effort and practice dedication. -Get what you want, regardless of the rest, becoming selfish. –
When the situation gets out of his hands feel pressured, and enters state of stress. He is firm, authoritative, responsible. He is involved in a scandal over his project, which leads to a state of madness to go to jail for his experiment with …
Tim- Young can do anything to gain acceptance. -With the wave, feel accepted and integrated into a group, since he had never been in one. Attitudes have maniac-proving it with their behavior in the development of the film. He reflected his insecurity at home, and looking at a house where the wave became his refuge and be understood.- Fear and madness to the solution of the wave, which leads to suicide. His way of thinking is so affected with respect to the rejection that comes a moment that becomes so dependent on the wave, that their actions are out of control.
Karo- Karo is a girl very confident.- It has very clear goals and objectives in life. ‘I like to always be right and that everything be done his way of seeing things. It is the bride-frame.- Karo is a popular girl in high school. She is rejected by the wave, because of the reviews that made the group.-Looking to fix the conflict that occurs in the wave, and obtain what best for all his companions, though they do not support it.-Through their actions seeking the truth behind the kind of autocracy.
Framework-The Wave meets the needs of his family did not cover, feeling supported by this group. Marco is the boyfriend of Karo. -It is the first to accept the rules of Rainer. ‘But when you see how the wave influenced him to the point of beating Karo, is given realize that it’s crazy and wants to stop it.
4.The Third Wave ‘It was an experiment done to show that even free societies, and open, are not immune to the lure of authoritarian and dictatorial ideologies.-It was made by history teacher Ron Jones, when he taught his students, the history of Nazi Germany. -The experiment was performed at Cubberley High School, a school in Palo Alto, California, during the first week of April 1967.
-Jones, called the experiment,The Third Wave, due to the popular notion that the third in a series of waves at sea is always stronger. http://www.losconsejeros.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/ronjonesjuergenvogelddpg.jpg http://www.paloaltohistory.com/resources/cubberley2007-467×340.jpg
4.1 Timeline Experiment
-The experiment lasted 5 days: 1.Monday : Strength through discipline 2.Tuesday: Strength through community 3.Wednesday : Strength through action 4. Thursday: Strength through pride 5. Friday : Strength through understanding Approach based on social psychology- From the teacher, Rainer Wenger.- From the students.
5. Poll(Autocracy as Form of government)
1 – Do you think what it would be possible be put in place a form of government, like autocracy in today’s society?
2 – Do you think it would be better than the current system of government?
3-Given the events of “ The Wave”, have you changed your opinion on the first question?
4 – Do you think they may reach a time when there is no system of autocracy in any country?
5 – Why do you think is better than the power of a country rests on a more than one person rather than a single?
6. Conclusions
The film is a means to understand that we are constantly reverse in a society in which converge a number of concepts that psychology portrays social consciously or unconsciously. With regard to the concept of group, its influence is essential both for people who partake of it as the consequences that carries people outside the group, since in many cases are part of a group or belong to a group that shares similar characteristics without knowing it. In view of the membership of a group there is a serious elements that play an important role in achieving the objectives such asunder the group consisting of mankind, cohesion, the position, social, status, rules, culture, personality and behavior . All these elements will be aware in the individual directly your choice as to know that the group is pursuing goals, by that way, who make up the group, and if you feel part of group. It is also expected that each individual is represented by a group avoiding guided by mass. On this basis, it could be shown in the movie despite the decision regarding the management of power to lead a group, the decision was very rapid, so that leaves a glimpse that there was a good Individual reflective work since it is guided by the time left. The Wave is definitely a great film that provides insight on the process of power and how this will influence each of the individuals, dragging them to the end of losing their identity as members of this group in particular one week changed their way of life, by an obsessive ideology. As a final thought it may be noted that the ends go hand in hand with complexity, in this case a course which becomes wanting group through unit into something better, resulted in exactly the opposite. What was sought was a self-governing with its own rules, without falling into the errors known as suffered by the German people and the world, but both want to do things right, from time enthusiasm almost trips over the same stone. At a time when the horizon is lost, forget the main reason the union to the common good. What really summoned the course, learn together in an entertaining way. Yielding almost fanaticism for the unit and completed events very regrettable, the murder of a student, the suicide of another, and the imprisonment of teacher . In short, as society is constantly changing so this involves learning that can be understood best if not overlooked that we interrelated, that my world affects the person or draws around me. Without forgetting that together we can make great projects grow, but also remember that as human branding is also large errors can comment not in a single sphere of existence, but the whole human experience . End


Perfil del inmigrante en Santander
Inmigrantes en Santander y Cantabria (España) Datos-2009-2010-pdf

Datos preliminares



Posición País España País Cantabria País Santander
1er lugar Rumania 829.715 Rumania 5.754 Perú 2.146
2do lugar Marruecos 746.760 Colombia 5.556 Moldavia 1.719
3er lugar Ecuador 395.069 Perú 3.754 Colombia 1.714
4to lugar R. Unido 387.226 Ecuador 2.603 Rumania 1.714
5to lugar Colombia 289.296 Moldavia 2.378 Ecuador 1.458

Fuente: Elaboración CMICAD partiendo de datos del la explotación del padrón provisional del INE al 1 de enero de 2010, del PMH de Santander al 1 de enero de 2010


R. Unido




Observatorio de Inmigración 2010

Los primeros cinco en España

829.715 14,53%
Marruecos 746.760 13,08%
Ecuador 395.069 6,92%

Reino Unido 387.226 6,78%

Colombia 289.296 5,06%

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010

Los primeros cinco en Cantabria

5.754 14,53%
5.556 11,18%
Perú 3.754 7,55%

Ecuador 2.603 5,23%

Moldavia 2.378 4,78%

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010

Los primeros cinco en Santander

Perú 2.146 13,66%
Moldavia 1.719 10,94%

Colombia 1.714 10,91%

Rumania 1.714 10, 91%

Ecuador 1.458 9,28%

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


Inmigrantes en Santander por regiones





1% 4%

UE 27
Fuente: Elaboración CMICAD partiendo de datos del PMH de Santander al 1 de enero de 2010

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


Unión Europea
21 %
Resto Europa
Resto Africa

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010

Cambio interanual 2009-2010 en Santander

País 2009 2010 Variación internanual Variacion abosuta
Peru 2020 2085 3,22 65
Moldavia 1441 1689 17,21 248
Colombia 1760 1678 -4,66 -82
Rumania 1549 1667 7,62 118
Ecuador 1540 1429 -7,21 -111

Fuente: Elaboración CMICAD partiendo de datos del la explotación del PMH de Santander al 1 de enero de 2010

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


En América

-Decrece el número de colombianos, brasileños,
ecuatorianos y argentinos.
Aumenta el número de peruanos, dominicanos y
paraguayos aunque con menor fuerza.

En la Unión Europea

-Moldavia es el país que mas crece y rompe el
patrón nacional en Santander.
-Rumania sigue incrementando su presencia
con menor énfasis.

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


En Asia

-China ralentiza su crecimiento de 28% a 17%
-Filipinas aumenta su presencia en 15%

En Africa

-Crecimiento de mas de 10% en la mayoría de las
nacionalidades africanas
-Senegal crece 26%
-Marruecos sube 18 %, Nigeria 15% y Argelia 13%

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010

Población inmigrante en Santander 2010
(disgregada por sexos y regiones)

LATINOAMERICA 55,20% 44,80%
UNION EUROPEA 46,34% 53,66%
RESTO DE EUROPA 52,05% 47,95%
RESTO DE AFRICA 35,81% 64,19%
MAGREB 32,65% 67,35%
ASIA 44,46% 55,54%
E.E.U.U.-CANADA 49,53% 50,47%

Fuente INE explotación del padrón datos provisionales al 1 de enero de 2010, y PMH de Santander al 1 de enero de 2010

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010



Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


44,86%64,19% 35,81%

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


-Se mantiene la proporción entre sexos en la Unión Europea,
Latinoamérica, el resto de Europa, E.E.U.U.

-Crece ligeramente la presencia de mujeres de Asia y
el Magreb

-Decrece la presencia de mujeres del resto de Africa en 9%

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


Santander 2009-2010

Fuente INE explotación del padrón datos provisionales al 1 de enero de 2010, y PMH de Santander al 1 de enero de 2010

Observatorio de Inmigración 2010


Santander 2009-2010

Fuente INE explotación del padrón datos provisionales al 1 de enero de 2010, y PMH de Santander al 1 de enero de 2010

Comenius subject 9

Policies for the preservation of the cultural identity in a globalized world

This work has being made by students of IES Santa Clara (Santander, Cantabria. Spain) 1ºH High School, Francisco Gonzáez and Daniel Moñino. Supervised the research Prof. Eliseo Rabadan, Philosophy and Psychology teacher

DEFINITION OF CULTURAL RIGHTS: The right to preserve and enjoy one’s cultural identity and development.
ENVIRONMENTAL, CULTURAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RIGHTS: Sometimes referred to as third generation rights, these rights recognize that people have the right to live in a safe and healthy environment and that groups of people have the right to cultural, political, and economic development.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966), together with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), make up the International Bill of Human Rights. In accordance with the Universal Declaration, the Covenants recognize that … the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can be achieved only if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights.
Article 1
All peoples have the right of self-determination, including the right to determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
Article 2
Each State Party undertakes to take steps to the maximum of its available resources to achieve progressively the full realization of the rights in this treaty. Everyone is entitled to the same rights without discrimination of any kind.
Article 3
The States undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all rights in this treaty.
Article 4
Limitations may be placed on these rights only if compatible with the nature of these rights and solely for the purpose of promoting the general welfare in a democratic society.
Article 5
No person, group or government has the right to destroy any of these rights.
Article 6
Everyone has the right to work, including the right to gain one’s living at work that is freely chosen and accepted.
Article 7
Everyone has the right to just conditions of work; fair wages ensuring a decent living for himself and his family; equal pay for equal work; safe and healthy working conditions; equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted; rest and leisure.
Article 8
Everyone has the right to form and join trade unions, the right to strike.
Article 9
Everyone has the right to social security, including social insurance.
Article 10
Protection and assistance should be accorded to the family. Marriage must be entered into with the free consent of both spouses. Special protection should be provided to mothers. Special measures should be taken on behalf of children, without discrimination. Children and youth should be protected from economic exploitation. Their employment in dangerous or harmful work should be prohibited. There should be age limits below which child labor should be prohibited.
Article 11
Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing. Everyone has the right to be free from hunger.
Article 12
Everyone has the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.
Article 13
Everyone has the right to education. Primary education should be compulsory and free to all.
Article 14
Those States where compulsory, free primary education is not available to all should work out a plan to provide such education.
Article 15
Everyone has the right to take part in cultural life; enjoy the benefits of scientific progress.
Source: Based on UN Centre on Human Rights, The International Bill of Rights, Fact Sheet #2

Cultural Sephardic Heritage in Spain

Red de Juderías de España. Objetivos: La Red de Juderías de España es una asociación pública sin ánimo de lucro que tiene como objetivo la defensa del patrimonio urbanístico, arquitectónico, histórico, artístico y cultural del legado sefardí en España. Sitio web http://webjuderias.org (Spanish version)
Network of Jewish Quarters in Spain. Objectives: The Network of Jewish Quarters in Spain is a public non-profit organization that aims to defend the urban heritage, architectural, historical, artistic and cultural Sephardic Heritage in Spain.
http://www.redjuderias.org/red/index.php?lang=2 (English version)
Meetings in Sefarad Choosing Spain to arrange your business event is always a guarantee of success. We suggest holding your conference or corporate meeting at six historic Spanish cities which are outstanding for their unique cultural, monumental and gastronomic Jewish heritage: Avila (Castile-León), Cáceres (Extremadura), Córdoba (Andalusia), Girona (Catalonia), Segovia (Castile-León) and Toledo (Castile-La Mancha). All of them are members of the association Meetings in Sefarad, and belong to the Spanish Jewish Network
Sitio web http://meetingsinsefarad.com
Destination in Spain´s Sefarad cities
Casa Sefarad- Israel http://www.casasefarad-israel.es/en/
University studies http://www.ucm.es/info/hebrea/ Estudios hebraicos y arameo UCM
http://www.ilc.csic.es/es/node/278039 CSIC Instituto de Lenguas y Culturas del Mediterráneo y Oriente Próximo – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Spain
Radio Sefarad Sefarad Broadcasting http://www.radiosefarad.com/joomla/
Estudios Judaicos sitio de Marciano de Hervás http://estudiosjudaicos.imaginason.com/
Casa de Sefarad http://www.casadesefarad.es
Toledo Judío Jewish Toledo in Spain http://toledojudio.com

LA JUDERIA DE SEGOVIA http://www.redjuderias.org/red/upload/imagenes/AG-7-2057_2.pdf
The Jewish Quarter of Segovia is located on the south side of walled in the area between the
Corpus Christi Square and the Las Canonjías.
The main focus is the old Main Street, now called Old Jewry.
This Aljama (named for having some economic and legal independence) kept it a
rich history, which documents are retained back to the thirteenth century, when the population
Jews lived scattered throughout the city. This community came to own five different synagogues,
several madrasas, mikvah and the slaughterhouse itself.
For most of its existence, the Jewish lived an atmosphere of comfort and hardly tell
episodes of violence against the Jewish population to the fifteenth century. The Jewish community of Segovia was composed of people of very diverse nature. Their professional activities were varied, counting this community with physicians, pharmacists, accountants, judges, craftsmen or traders. The only activities that do not appear related to the medieval Jewish population of Segovia are the care livestock and farming.
The creation of a permanent enclosed space happens at the end of the fifteenth century, a time of  drastic change. The mosque was closed with eight own doors, using also two of the wall.
From the decree of expulsion issued by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492, was renamed Jewry
Barrio Nuevo.
The urban layout remains virtually intact. In recent years, from 2005 to 2009, a A.R.C.H. program (Hull Area Rehabilitation History) has made possible a comprehensive reform of
neighborhood, which has been a substantial improvement heritage of this area. Today, a stroll through the Jewry can recapture the past, to which also contributes the wide cultural offer:
guided tours, lectures, concerts, films, workshops, tastings of Sephardic cooking, book presentations …

Clausurada la Muestra Educativa Europea de Proyectos


La colaboración entre consejerías y puerto ha hecho posible un lugar de encuentro para los proyectos europeos que se desarrollan en centros educativos de Cantabria. Cerca de 1500 personas han visitado la exposición

Comenius 2010-2012 IES Santa Clara Exibición de Proyectos organizada por la Consejería de Educación del Gobierno de Cantabria Mayo 2012

En el marco de la celebración de la Semana Europea en Cantabria, la Consejería de Economía, Hacienda y Empleo, en colaboración con la Consejería de Educación, Cultura y Deporte del Gobierno regional, a través de la DG de Ordenación e Innovación Educativa, la DG de Asuntos Europeos y la Autoridad Portuaria de Santander, se ha celebrado una exposición por la que han pasado cerca de 1.500 personas entre padres, profesionales y curiosos. Expuesto a los ojos de toda la ciudadanía, este espacio de encuentro exhibía el resultado de la colaboración entre centros educativos de Cantabria y otros centros europeos a través de proyectos de asociación escolar Comenius o hermanamientos del programa eTwinning. Las obras y actividades mostradas tenían el nexo común de trabajar aspectos europeístas, significativos en el contexto escolar, que inciden directamente en la formación del alumnado y en sus competencias básicas, con especial atención al desarrollo del aprendizaje de idiomas y al uso de las tecnologías para la comunicación.

Los proyectos europeos, una ventana a la educación Europea

Cada año varios son los centros educativos que emprenden la aventura de desarrollar proyectos de manera conjunta con socios europeos, un trabajo colaborativo que permite ampliar horizontes, no sólo educativos sino también profesionales, ya que contribuyen a la creación de una sociedad del conocimiento avanzada facilitando el intercambio, la cooperación y comunicación, ejes clave dentro de las prioridades de la estrategia Europa 2020. Esta exposición propone precisamente un recorrido por toda Europa a través de los puentes tendidos desde Cantabria. Resulta destacable la implicación y el esfuerzo de los docentes por acercar a la población escolar estas nuevas formas de trabajo y aprendizaje ofrecen variados y creativos enfoques coordinados desde colegios o institutos cántabros.

La exposición ha pretendido ser un escaparate de buenas prácticas y fuente de ideas y recursos a los profesionales de la educación y a la sociedad en general interesada en observar la construcción de la conciencia europeísta desde el marco educativo. La Muestra Educativa Europea de Proyectos cerró las puertas del Palacete del Embarcadero de Santander, pero los trabajos de los alumnos pueden consultarse a través de las diversas webs creadas para cada proyecto:

CC EL SALVADOR (Torrelavega-Barreda): Je découvre, je me découvre…(Le français par le théâtre) | http://www.jedecouvre.org y http://www.dipity.com/Comenius/
C.C.E.E. FERNANDO ARCE. (Torrelavega) Different and still the same! | http://www.comeniusfarce.blogspot.com/
CEIP MATA LINARES (San Vicente de la Barquera) Culture; a Chance for Connection | http://www.colegiomatalinares.blogspot.com/p/comenius.html
IES SANTA CLARA (Santander) Between Religions and Ethics – A Common Ground www.religionsandethics.wordpress.com y https://comeniussantaclara.wordpress.com/

trabajo realizado por alumnos del bachillerato de Bellas Artes en el IES Santa Clara el curso 2010-11

IES LA MARINA (Santa Cruz de Bezana) Manners and more- Why they still matter | http://www.comeniusmanners.blogspot.com/
COLEGIO SAN JUAN BAUTISTA (Los Corrales de Buelna) Cultural Jigsaw | http://www.servidor1.lasalle.es/corrales/web/?p=2581 y http://www.etwinning.net/es/pub/profile.cfm?f=2&l=es&n=61820
COLEGIO COMPAÑÍA DE MARIA (Santander) Earth, Water, Air and Fire | http://www.earth-awe-comenius.eu/
IES VALENTIN TURIENZO (Colindres) Movilidad Alumnado Comenius (MAC) | http://www.iesvalentinturienzo.es/wordpress/

Languages take you further (CEIP Dionisio Garcia Barredo / Ana Temiño)
Mais, où est mon Pote? (IES Valle de Piélagos / Mª del Mar Hernández Hernández)
Let´s Meet in One Click (Colegio Ramón Pelayo / Cristina Anero Gancedo)
My name is a History lesson (IES Valle de Piélagos / Marián Reguera González)


Universal and particular national cultures (religion, art, morality)

Comment authored by : Nieves Barriuso 1 º C IES Santa Clara. Santander. Spain

Francisco de Goya: Considered one of the great masters of painting in Spain,he was a painter and engraver. Born in a small Aragonese town, Fuentedetodos, on March 30, 1746 and died in Bordeaux, France on April 16, 1828. He began his formal education at age 14. In 1789 Goya was appointed painter to King Charles IV and in 1799 was the firstpainter. The horrors of war left a deep impression on him, personally I behold the battles between French soldiers and Spanish citizens during the years of the Napoleonic occupation.

The Shootings of May 3

268 x 347 cm
Oil on canvas
Exhibited at the Prado Museum, Madrid. Spain

Representation of the executions of patriots from Madrid by Napoleon’s army in retaliation to the uprising of May 2, 1808 against the French occupation of Spain

The composition is divided into two main parts: the first, to the left, a group composed of civilians, about twelve, in different positions, one covers his face, others already dead, lying on the ground, another appears praying, another with open arms … The right part is formed by a group of six soldiers pointing their guns at the group of civilians before them.On the civilian group, is the mountain of Principe Pio. And in the background, we see an architecture belonging to the city of Madrid and the black night where the action takes place, and covering the rest of the composition.
Goya used in this table primarily dark palette, dominated by the range of the black color of death, with significant mixing of colors associated with the range

Pablo Picasso 1881-1973 Born in Malaga, Spain

Comments authored by Marina Marín, Carlos Serrano, Denisse Aguirre IES Santa Clara. Santander. Spain

Spanish painter Pablo Picasso painted mural (1937) of bombing of Basque city of Guernica by German airforce during Spanish Civil War. Depicts victims of war, suffering women, children, and horse. Perhaps greatest painting about war ever made. Focuses on victims. Timeless and universal in its themes.

The fact that both Picasso and Goya were direct witness of war and its effects over civilians such as famine, misery and hate, pushed these great painters to fight against War and defende peace and freedom as universal values.

Picasso´s famous Guernica mural is known al around the World and it is a symbol for the fight for freedom, for peace and therespect of life and tolerance. Picasso wished to share a message for all minkind in which a cruel attack such as Gernica bombings should never happen again.

The same intent was in Goya´s mind when working in a series of works known as The Dissasters of War. He wanted to show how big power of destruction and deep hate emerged during War times and his intent was as much as Picasso did, to send all peoples on Earth a clear and strong message to defened and always fight to build a human society in which values such as tolerance, freedom, right to live and rejecting all types of violence and of course any kind of War beteen nations and peoles

Comments authored by Marina Marín,Carlos Serrano,Denisse Aguirre 1ºC IES Santa Clara. Santander. Spain

Spanish cultural identity through Picasso and Goya

A- Picasso and Gernika on War and Peace




B- Goya The dissasters of War


C- Videos


D- Picasso sites


E- Goya sites




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